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 2022/8/1/09:30 讀書會內容
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2022/8/1/09:30 讀書會內容

 

Chapter 1 Reimagining Our Economy

第一章 重新設計我們的經濟

 

Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu. (I am because we are.)

Ubuntu philosophy

Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu。(我是,因為我們是。)

Ubuntu的哲學

 

1-1

In 1776, thirteen colonies at war with Great Britain declared their independence, launching the United States of America and the creation of a new system of government based on what is now the world’s oldest continuously active constitution.

1776年,13個殖民地與英國開戰宣佈獨立,建立了美國, 並且創造了一個新的政權體系, 一個建立在當今世界最古老並且還持續活躍的憲法的政權體系。

 

1-2

That same year, Scottish philosopher Adam Smith completed his decade long inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations, publishing a book that is considered the first modern work of economics and one whose key principles remain central to the discipline to this day.

同年, 蘇格蘭哲學家亞當·史密斯完成了他的一個十年的研究: 針對國家財富的本質和原因的調查. 他出版一本被認為是第一部現代經濟學的著作,其關鍵原則直到今天仍然是這門學科的核心思想.

 

1-3

There was a curious belief at the heart of both of these newly founded systems: people are selfish, but it is possible to channel that selfishness to produce publicly beneficial effects.

這兩個新的系統中心都有一個讓人感到好奇的思想:人是自私的,但自利的個人動機可以被引導到對公眾有益的方向並造成影響.

 

1-4

This is most clear in Smith’s belief that a free market would channel self-interested pursuits into societally optimal outcomes.

這在史密斯的信念中體現得最為明顯, 自由市場會將自私的追求,引導到對整體最有益的結果。

 

1.5

The Founding Fathers also suggested that democracy might yield order out of selfish leadership impulses: if those in power across top government institutions found themselves restrained by a system of checks and balances, the people would be able to flourish.

開國元勳們也指出,在一個最高權力有受到制約和平衡的民主體制下,人民可以得到蓬勃的發展。

 

2-1

There was also a stark blindness at the heart of both perspectives.

然而這兩個觀點的核心之中,都有一個十分嚴重的盲點(限制)。

 

2-2

Smith, who actually had a strong belief in the importance of a shared morality for maintaining social order, held that self-interested people make markets but failed to see how markets would also make self-interested people, and so erode those moral sentiments.

史密斯實際上有一個強大的信仰: 他認為共同的道德基礎對維持社會和諧十分的重要, 然後自利的人們會想辦法創造市場,但他沒考慮到市場也會創造出更多自私自利的人,這會反過來侵蝕這個維護社會秩序的道德基礎。

 

2-3

Meanwhile, the Founding Fathers were just that: a group of white property-owners who failed to see their privilege and who talked of liberty while cementing in place systems of racism and patriarchy, who conceived of checks and balances but excluded the majority of people from the democracy they set up.

與此同時, 這些開國元勳們其實是: 一群沒有看清其實自己是享有許多特權的白人地主,在鞏固種族主義和父權制度的同時談論自由,設計了種種牽制跟監督機制, 但卻從頭到尾都把大多數人(的權益)排除在這個民主制度之外。

 

2-4

For nearly 250 years now, our major economic and political institutions have been built on the assumption of self-interested individuals and the continued systemic marginalization of disenfranchised groups.

近 250年來, 各國的主要經濟和政治制度都建立在 (1)個人是自私自利的假設 (2) 不斷剝削弱勢族群之上。

 

2-5

And while there have been some clear economic and social gains in that time, usually because of groups challenging exclusion, we have reached a point where our fundamental economic structures are driving unprecedented inequality, social divisions, and ecological destruction, amidst a politics of polarization, fragmentation, and alienation.

雖然有取得了一些明顯的經濟和社會進步 (通常是通過某些組織挑戰被排斥在外的不平),我們已經走到了一個臨界點, 現有的經濟結構在兩極化分裂的政治氛圍下, 已經造成了前所未有的不平等、社會分裂。

 

2-6

Can’t we do better? After all, we know that people also act out of caring, sharing, and interest in the collective good.

我們難道不能變得更好嗎?畢竟,人也會因為對集體利益的關心、分享和興趣而行動。

 

2-7

Can we build a better economy out of that sense of mutuality?

難道不能從這種互助互惠當中建立一個更好的經濟嗎?

 

2-8

After all, we know in our own lives that teams and communities perform better when everyone feels connected.

畢竟,在我們自己的生活中,我們都知道當每個人都有感覺到連結在一起時,團隊和組織的表現得更好。

 

2-9

What would it take for us to transform our economy and politics to put that in place?

我們要怎樣才能轉化我們的經濟和政治來實現那樣的狀態?

 

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2022/8/1/09:30 讀書會內容

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