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 美股團隊 [團結經濟讀書會] 20220823: 09:30
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美股團隊 [團結經濟讀書會] 20220823: 09:30


時間: 2022/08/23/ 09:30 - 09:50

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書名: Solidarity Economics (團結經濟學)

作者: Chris Benner & Manuel Pastor

公開書, 請看群組公告連結下載


書的重點提要

(如果有新夥伴再閱讀)

1) Our Economy: 我們的經濟. 不是這個那個誰的或哪個國家的經濟. 即使充斥如此多的不平等和對立和環境破壞, 它依然是我們一起主動被動聯手創造的, 我們的經濟

2) Mutuality: 互助互惠. 市場導向, 資本主義確實在現今社會的經濟主流. 但我們仍然可以看到很多企業設有非營利部門, 很多很有作為的非營利機構, 更不用說各種大大小小影響著我們的經濟的社群和團體. 鼓勵互助互惠的合作, 對我們的經濟接下來的發展至關重要

3) Our Movements : 我們的行動. 我們對改變的態度並不天真; 因為我們知道,要創造一個重視每個人的經濟,就需要撼動部分既得利益者的權力。 


20220823重點提要

1) 本書也會探討建立加強團結經濟的機關制度跟相應的基礎設施。

2) 提倡團結經濟學的意義


19-2

This could be the force of the ideas and evidence themselves, but it often also requires political action to confront powerful actors and change the rules of the game.

這可以是思想和證據本身的力量,但它往往也需要採取政治行動來對抗強大的利益集團並改變遊戲規則。


19-3

 It was only when workers and their allies marched in the street and testified in city council meetings that the “Fight for $15” (which we will talk more about in chapter 6) was successful in actually getting minimum wage increases in cities and states across the country.

只有當工人和他們的盟友走上街頭,在市議會會議上作證時,“為15美元而戰”(我們將在第六章中詳細討論)才真正成功地在全國各地的城市和州提高了最低工資標準。


19-4

Force is also about creating institutions and infrastructure that reinforce a new paradigm.

社會運動還涉及建立加強新概念的機關制度跟相應的基礎設施。


19-5

We have seen this in the way neoliberal thinking itself was institutionalized.

我們已經從新自由主義思想本身被制度化的方式中看到了這一點。


19-6

For example, in her book Democracy in Chains, historian Nancy MacLean argues that public choice economics – a version of neoliberal theory that contends that the positive self-interest of market participants should not be overwhelmed by the nefarious self-interest of government bureaucrats – was propped up by the investments in thinkers and think tanks by billionaires who stood to profit from shrinking the state and constraining the will of the people.

例如,歷史學家南茜·麥克萊恩在她的《枷鎖中的民主》一書中指出,公共選擇經濟學——新自由主義理論的一個版本,認為市場參與者的積極自我利益取向不應被政府官僚的邪惡自我利益所壓倒——這其實是由億萬富翁們對思想家和智庫的投資支撐起來的風向,而這些億萬富翁可以從國家制度管理的簡化跟限制人民意願中獲利。


19-7

This added to decades of spending to support conservative pillars of economics such as the American Enterprise Institute, the Cato Institute, and the Heritage Foundation.

更不用說還有數十年來支援保守派經濟支柱的種種金援,如美國企業研究所、卡托研究所和傳統基金會。


19-8

An economics based on the power of mutuality, solidarity, and justice is not likely to find such wealthy patrons, but it must find its power and institutional base somewhere – and we are heartened by the work of the Roosevelt Institute, the Washington Center for Equitable Growth, and so many others seeking to establish that infrastructure.

建立在互助、團結和正義的基礎上的經濟學不太可能找到這樣富有的贊助人,但它必須在某個地方找到它自己的力量和建立制度的基礎——我們為羅斯福研究所、華盛頓公平增長中心以及其他許多尋求建立這種基礎設施的機構所做的工作感到鼓舞。


20-1

This book seeks to support that process by offering one alternative to the current dominant paradigm.

本書試圖通過提供一種替代當前主流概念的方法來支援這一過程。


Solidarity Economics

團結經濟學

 

20-2

So what do we mean by solidarity economics?

那麼,我們所說的團結經濟學是什麼意思呢? 


20-3

As suggested earlier, we see three fundamental and interlocking premises: (1) our economy is not some abstract natural phenomenon driven by immutable forces, but rather created by people through collaboration as well as competition;     (2) when we recognize and reinforce those collaborative elements, we end up with not only better social outcomes but also better economic outcomes;    and (3) because some people benefit from the current system and would seek to divide us, social movements for change are critical to economic success, both because they can help shift power and because they can help build and broaden our sense of mutuality.

正如前面提到的,我們看到了三個基本的、相互聯繫的前提:(1)我們的經濟不是某種抽象的、或永恆的力量所驅動的自然現象,而是由人們通過合作和競爭創造的;(2)當我們認識到並加強這些協作元素時,我們不僅會產生更好的社會結果,還會產生更好的經濟結果;(3)因為有些人從當前的制度中受益,並試圖分化我們,社會運動對經濟成功至關重要,因為它們可以幫助轉移決策權力,也可以幫助建立和擴大我們的相互意識。 


20-4

The first premise, increasingly emergent in the realm of behavioral economics, has to do with the conception of human nature.

第一個前提,在行為經濟學領域日益湧現的,其實與人性息息相關。 


20-5

The general assumption by most economists since Adam Smith has been that people act purely (or at least largely) out of self-interest.

自亞當•史密斯以來,大多數經濟學家的普遍假設是,人們的行為純粹(或至少在很大程度上)出於自身利益。 


20-6

For neoliberals, the good news is that the market will coordinate all that selfishness to a blissful outcome, and so limited government is the best recipe.

對新自由主義者來說,好消息是,市場將協調所有以自身利益為出發的作為, 然後還可以獲得一個圓滿的結果,所以有限的政府干預是最好的配方。 


20-7

On the left, there is often a similar take on what drives economic behavior, with the caveat being that bliss is not likely to be distributed justly; as a result, the state must act to constrain the worst instances of selfishness and so, corral our economy into serving the common good.

對於經濟行為的驅動力,左派往往有著類似的看法,其警告是幸福不太可能被公平分配;因此,國家必須採取行動,限制最惡劣的自私行為,從而使我們的經濟為公共利益服務。 


21-1

But as became evident in the COVID-19 crisis and in many other disaster situations, people also act out of impulses of solidarity with one another.

但正如在2019冠狀病毒病危機和許多其他災害情況中所顯示的那樣,人們也出於團結一致的衝動而行動。 


21-2

And this is not just in moments of stress; care for one another is as much an impulse as is fear of the other, and generally the world goes better when this, rather than fragmentation, is the norm.

這不僅僅說的是在有壓力時候; 我們對彼此的關心和對彼此的恐懼一樣,有時候都是一種衝動。通常情況下,當這種關心成為常態時,世界會變得更好。 


21-3

The challenge, as articulated by economist Sam Bowles in his brilliant book The Moral Economy, is that we have structured our economic and political systems to either reward or tame self-interest rather than to promote our connection with one another.

正如經濟學家薩姆·鮑爾斯在其傑出著作《道德經濟學》中所闡述的那樣,我們所面臨的挑戰是,我們構建的經濟和政治體系要麼獎勵, 要麼馴服利己主義,卻不是去促進我們彼此之間的聯結。


20-4

公平地說,傳統的經濟模型並不否認人們有相互依存, 互助互惠的衝動,但是他們假設這些衝動是在經濟之外的框架——在家庭生活、社區、教堂和慈善工作中。

To be fair, traditional economic models do not deny that people have impulses for mutuality, but they assume that these impulses are expressed outside the economy – in family life, neighborhoods, churches, charity work.


20-5

But assuming that people check their humanity when they enter the economy creates highly problematic blinders: the resulting economic models make invisible the unpaid labor of mostly women in the home and community; they undervalue the essential human interactions in caring work that stretches across much of our service economy;  and they ignore the ways that collaboration is an essential part of innovation, teamwork, and many other economic activities.

但是,假設人們在進入經濟領域時會檢查自己的人性,就會產生嚴重的問題: 由此產生的經濟模型讓大多數女性在家庭和社區中從事的無償勞動變得無形; 他們低估了護理工作中必不可少的人際互動,而護理工作在我們的服務經濟體量中佔據了很大一部分; 他們忽視了協作是創新、團隊合作和許多其他經濟活動的重要組成部分。

 
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    股動人心的其他動態

    理財學院講師

    股動人心

    會員等級:理財學院講師

    註冊日期:2022-02-25

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